"4G"
means fourth generation cellular wireless standards
"Anti-reflective coating"
means a layer of dielectric material deposited on a wafer before resist in order to reduce line width variation caused by scattering and reflection of light;
"BARC" or "bottom anti-reflective coating"
means a spin-on organic polymer formulation applied to the bottom of a photoresist;
"buffer coating"
means a product used in the IC industry to protect circuits from external damage;
"CMP" or "chemical mechanical planarisation"
means the chemical and mechanical smoothing of dielectric layers of semiconductors, in order to ensure a uniform plane surface;
"CMP slurry"
means a viscous liquid with a high solids content used in the CMP of a wafer in order to ensure a uniform plane surface;
"Colloidal silica CMP slurries"
means a colloidal silica form of CMP slurry, as opposed to fumed silica technology. The Group’s colloidal silica slurries are sold under the KLEBOSOL® brand;
"CVD" or "chemical vapour deposition"
means a chemical process often used in semiconductor chip manufacturing for the deposition of thin films of various materials;
"developer"
means a product used to remove the photoresist from the substrate after exposure to light;
"dielectric"
means a nonconductive material or insulator;
"edge bead"
means the residual resist that remains on the edge of a substrate after the application process;
"EBR" or "edge bead remover"
means a solvent mix used in both FPD and IC industries to remove photoresist at the substrate edge;
"etching"
means the process of using a solution, a mixture of solutions, or a mixture of gases that attacks the surfaces of a film or substrate, removing materials either selectively or non selectively;
"film"
means a layer of contaminant on part or all of a substrate. An example is wax that has migrated onto the substrate surface;
"FIRM"
means a type of rinse materials proprietary to the Group used to prevent defects and the collapse of stacks of silicon wafers;
"FPD" or "flat panel display"
means a thin lightweight video display used in laptop, televisions, mobile phones and notebook computers and employing liquid crystals, electroluminescence, or a similar alternative to cathode-ray tubes;
"IC" or "integrated circuit"
means a fabrication technology that combines most of the components of a circuit on a single-crystal silicon wafer generally used as a proxy for semiconductors;
"ITRS" or "International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors"
means the roadmap or technology assessment of the needs and challenges facing the semiconductor industry over the next 15 years;
"LCD" or "liquid crystal displays"
means a low-power flat-panel display used in many laptop computers, televisions and electronic devices, made up of a liquid crystal that is sandwiched between layers of glass or plastic that becomes opaque when electric current passes through it. The contrast between the opaque and transparent areas forms visible characters;
"LED" or "light emitting diode"
means a semiconductor diode that produces visible or infrared light when subjected to an electric current, as a result of electroluminescence;
"lithography"
means a process in which a masked pattern is projected onto a photosensitive coating that covers a substrate;
"Minaturisation"
means the trend towards decreasing sizes of semiconductor chips enabled by technologies that facilitate narrower line widths and reduced feature sizes;
"Moore’s Law"
describes the industry impetus to fit more functionality in a semiconductor device and states that the number of transistors on a IC will double approximately every two years;
"Novolak"
means polycondensate resin made from phenolic monomers. One of the Group’s higher volume raw materials mostly used in FPD and IC photoresists;
"OLED" or "organic LED"
means a LED in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds that emits light when an electric current passes through it. Thus technology is still in the development phase and is used mostly in small screens for mobile phones, MP3 players, car radios and digital cameras;
"PAC" or "PACs"
means organic photoactive compounds, which are oil based and tend to be used in the production of photoresists;
"patterning"
means a process of photolithography of forming geometrical shapes by the use of photosensitive resists, masks and etching techniques;
"PC"
means personal computer;
"PGME" or "Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether"
means an oil-based solvent used in the manufacture of photoresists and EBRs primarily for use in the manufacture of IC materials;
"PGMEA" or "Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate"
means an oil-based solvent used in the manufacture of photoresists and EBRs primarily for use in the manufacture of IC materials;
"PFOS" or "perflurooctanesulfonic" acid
means an acid used in the photolithography process;
"photomask" or "mask"
means a structure comprising functional pattern images produced on a film, plastic, or glass-based material and accurately positioned so as to be useful for selective exposure of a photoresist coating;
"photoresist"
means a light-sensitive substance used to facilitate the transfer of glass substrate materials in FPD semiconductor wafers in IC;
"PHPS" or "perhydropolysilazane"
means a novel spin-on dielectric (insulation layer used in semiconductor chips. PHPS is rapidly replacing the existing CVD products, given its lower cost and superior performance characteristics;
"pixel"
means the basic unit of programmable colour on a computer display or in a computer image;
"polymers"
means a macromolecule made up of repeating chemical units, joined together typically by covalent bonds.  Polymers enable nearly every phase of advanced electronic device manufacturing. From improving dielectric properties to enhancing physical characteristics, polymers are a key element in fabricating today's ever scaling, yet highly robust electronics devices.
"RELACS™"
means licensed shrink technology, used in the IC industry, that enables feature sizes to be significantly reduced whilst still using existing lithography equipment. The term RELACS™ is taken from Resolution Enhancement Lithography Assisted by Chemical Shrink;
"resist"
means a photosensitive liquid-plastic film applied to the surface of a substrate for lithography;
"SAP"
means System Applications & Products;
"SEMATECH"
means the Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology;
"SELETE"
means Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, a consortium for the development of silicon wafer technologies;
"semiconductor"
means an element that has an electrical resistivity in the range between conductors (such as aluminium) and insulators (such as silicon dioxide). ICs are typically fabricated in semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or gallium arsenide;
"SI" or "silicon"
means a brownish crystalline semimetal used to make the majority of semiconductor wafers;
"stripper"
means a chemical solvent used to remove residual photoresist from a silicon wafer after etching;
"substrate"
means a substance that is the basis for subsequent processing operations in the fabrication of semiconductor devices or circuits or FPDs;
"TARC" or "top anti-reflective coating"
means a water soluble polymer applied to the top of a photoresist;
"TFT" or "thin film transistor"
means a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositing thin films of a semiconductor active layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting substrate;
"TFR" or "thick film resist"
means a resist used in the IC industry to connect semiconductor chips to a circuit board and for recording hard disk drives;
"UV"
means ultraviolet;
"wafer"
means a thin slice with parallel faces cut from a semiconductor crystal.

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